GHG Emission Reductions In The Global Aluminium Industry

International Aluminium
Innovations in the
aluminium industry
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GHG Emissions
All countries
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Australia
Bahrain
Brazil
Canada
China
Denmark
France
Germany
Iceland
India
Ireland
Japan
Mexico
Mozambique
Norway
Oman
Qatar
Russia
Saudi Arabia
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
UAE
United Kingdom
USA
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Recycling aluminium scrap into building components

USA

The US Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Washington has developed a new process called Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion Process (ShAPE) that can transform 100 per cent post-consumer aluminium scrap into usable extrusions.

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Energy Efficiency

China

This is an R&D project on DC power consumption at 11800kwh/t

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Inert Anodes

China

Inert anode R&D underway in China. Inert anodes have the potential to eliminate all direct process greenhouse gas emissions from smelting.

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Scrap Sorting

USA

A joint venture designed to industrialize sorting technology, bringing this advanced aluminum sorting technology to the United States.

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Pre/post-consumer Scrap recycling

Qatar

Successfully implemented pre/post-consumer scrap recycling; working on strategy to increase volumes.

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Recycling of External Aluminium Scrap

Oman

Recycling of External Aluminium Scrap. The project will remelt at least 200 tons of external scrap per month.

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Post-consumer scrap purification

USA

Purification process that can convert low-quality post consumer aluminum scrap to purity levels coming from commercial smelters.

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Recycling joint venture

USA

A joint venture to manufacture and market recycled aluminium products.

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Post Consumer Scrap

Saudi Arabia

Plan to build a 400k mt per year post-consumer Recycling capacity by 2027. This is an estimated CAPEX of 180mUSD for the recycling facility, with an additional 200m USD on the Casthouse side.

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Post Consumer Scrap

Saudi Arabia

Existing 130kmt of Can Recycling Unit, providing around 23% of post-consumer scrap. This is the best in the Gulf region. There are plans to increase this capacity to 170kmt with further investments of close to 30m USD in the coming business plan.

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Post-consumer scrap purification

Purification process that can convert low-quality post consumer aluminum scrap to purity levels coming from commercial smelters.

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Dross Recycling

China

The main objective of this project is to extract aluminum metal, salt, and ammonia from aluminum dross through processes such as crushing, grinding, screening, dissolution, leaching, salt extraction, ammonia extraction, and drying. The remaining materials are transformed into inert oxide products, which can be used as raw material for manufacturing deoxidiser, and refractory balls, etc.

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Scrap sorting

Germany

Recycling is more efficient if scrap is sorted by alloy type. Companies have invested in advanced scrap sorting and shredding technologies that use X-ray transmission and sensors to better separate certain alloys. In Hydro we have developed scrap sorting based on LIBS (Laser Induced Spectroscopy) for more accurate alloy sorting. An industrial pilot is in operation in Dormagen and implementation is possible in all our recyclers.

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Closed-loop recycling

A groundbreaking technology for recycling the aluminum content in multilayered cartons and flexible packaging. This new technology, and the pilot plant was optimized to demonstrate that aluminum-plastic separation is 100% efficient, allowing the two materials to be fully recycled.

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Alloy sorting and recycling optimisation

This new scrap separation line is able to process scrap materials with a higher level of contaminants for the production of billets containing recycled material. The new station has a processing capacity of 100,000 metric tons per year.

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Closed loop recycling

USA

New low-carbon recycling and rolling plant in the USA. The highly advanced facility will have an initial 600 kilotonnes of finished aluminum goods capacity per year.

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Electrification of cast house and recycling furnace

Germany

Operating a state-of-the-art induction furnace that uses renewable energy to melt and recycle scrap aluminum.

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Solar Power for Smelter

Oman

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CCUS

Oman

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Solar/battery

Australia

A new solar farm and battery storage at Weipa in Queensland. A 4MW solar plant and 4MW/4MWh of battery storage at Weipa will complement the existing 1.6MW solar farm at Weipa

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Solar/battery

Australia

A new 12.4MW solar farm and 8.8MVa/2.1MWh of battery storage to provide renewable energy near Weipa in Queensland

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Mechanical Vapour Recompression

Australia

As part of a trial in Western Australia, recycled steam will be used in the refining process to produce alumina. Through mechanical vapour recompression powered by renewable energy, waste steam that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere is redirected to a compressor that raises the pressure and temperature of the steam ready for reuse.

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Electric calcination

Australia

In Australia, Alcoa is focusing on electric calcination as an alternative to natural gas in the calcination process at alumina refineries.

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Solar Power for Smelter

Australia

Development of Australia’s largest solar power project near Gladstone, after agreeing to buy all electricity from the 1.1GW Upper Calliope Solar Farm to provide renewable power.

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Hydrogen use for calcination (Refining)

Australia

A jointly delivered project will demonstrate hydrogen production and operation of hydrogen-fuelled calcination for process heating in alumina refineries.

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Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) at Smelters

Iceland

An onshore CO2 injection in the world’s first carbon mineral storage hub, the Coda Terminal. Liquified CO2 will be imported by ship from industrial sites across North Europe for storage.

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Electrification of cast house and recycling furnace

Norway

Hydro is exploring use of direct electricity for casthouse/recycling furnaces.

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Hydrogen

Norway

Hydrogen could be used as a fuel source to produce high-temperature heat for industrial use. In Europe, opportunities to develop and operate hydrogen facilities to replace the natural gas used in cast housee anode production and recycling furnaces are being explored.

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Inert anode cells

Russia

Inert anodes research and demonstration in Russia. Inert anodes have the potential to eliminate all direct process greenhouse gas emissions from smelting.

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Heat recovery

China

Special heat recovery thermal modules and intelligent control system for energy flow, efficiently recovering waste heat from the side of electrolysis potlines and flue gas, and reuse of heat equivalent to more than 200kwh/t by 2025.

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FHEST Technology

China

This new steady-flow heat-insulating aluminum electrolytic cell energy-saving technology (FHEST technology) enusres that low-consumption and high-efficiency operation of aluminum electrolytic cells. Industrial applications demonstrate that this technology achieves a direct current consumption of aluminum liquid between 12300-12600 kWh/t-Al, averaging around 12500 kWh/t-Al, with an average current efficiency of approximately 92%.

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Carbon Anode Antioxidant Additives

China

Development of carbon anode antioxidant additives to reduce anode manufacturing costs, reduce carbon slag, reduce anode consumption

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Graphitised Cathode Electrolysers

China

The graphitised cathode electrolysers saw pressure at the bottom of the furnace dropped, saving 260-300 kWh/t aluminium.

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Solar Power for Smelter – ACWA power

Saudi Arabia

Working on 110-120 MW PV solution with ACWA power to feed our smelter. Again this is at the scoping level stage and we will reach a conclusion by Oct 2022. This will reduce ~450k mt of Co2 emissions. Timeline if viable is 2024

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Solar thermal plant for refining

Saudi Arabia

Developing world's largest solar steam plant for alumina refining.

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Solar

China

Photovoltaic direct current supply into aluminium smelting production, which not only reduce the power loss in the inverter/rectifier, but also significantly improve the level of renewable energy use

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Mechanical Vapour Recompression

Australia

As part of a trial in Western Australia, recycled steam will be used in the refining process to produce alumina. Through mechanical vapour recompression powered by renewable energy, waste steam that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere is redirected to a compressor that raises the pressure and temperature of the steam ready for reuse.

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Electric calcination

Australia

In Australia, there is a focus on electric calcination as an alternative to natural gas in the calcination process at alumina refineries.

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Hydrogen

Australia

Hydrogen could be used as a fuel source to produce high-temperature heat for industrial use. In Australia, opportunities to develop and operate hydrogen facilities to replace the natural gas used in cast houses and anode production are being explored.

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GE’s Advanced Gas Path

Qatar

This is implemented as part of electricity generation efficiency improvement and GHG emissions reduction in Qatar.

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Renewable Energy

Investment in Yunnan Yanshan County Photovoltaic Power Generation Project of 1.875 Million Kilowatts

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Plasma technology

Norway

With the testing of emission-free plasma technology in the casthouse at Sunndal, Hydro is pursuing its goal to achieve zero CO2 emissions in aluminium production. Hydro has been granted soft funding from the Norwegian Government for a project that could have global impact on hard-to-abate industries.

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Bio anodes

Norway

R&D to replace fossil coke and pitch to reduce emissions from fossil materials.

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Carbon free electrolysis

Norway

This carbon-free electrolysis technology which aims to produce aluminium without carbon emissions. Industry scale pilot by 2030.

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CCS

Norway

Carbon capture and storage, technology development ongoing, aimed at industrial scale pilot by 2030.

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Solar

Sweden

Hydro Rein has signed agreements with GreenGo Energy to acquire and develop two early phase solar projects in Southern Sweden. The projects have combined 118 MW capacity and are in area SE4, with land lease agreements signed. Construction is expected to begin in 2027, with production starting in 2028.

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Solar

Denmark

Development of two new early phase solar projects in Denmark, with a combined capacity of 410 MW.

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Solar

Norway

A joint solar power company aimed at developing seven solar projects totaling 655 MW at selected properties in Norway.

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Solar and battery

Sweden

First phase of project to remove local carbon emissions in Sweden. The aim is to complete the rooftop solar panels and battery storage during the fourth quarter of 2023, and ground mounted solar panels in 2024.

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Biomethane and anode production.

Norway

Bioenergy (biomethane) replacing fossil energy in casthouse and the anode production. This will cut emissions by 20,000 tonnes of CO2 each year.

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Wind

United Kingdom

Hydro will receive renewable electricity from the Rhyl Flats windfarm in Wales. The electricity is certified with a Renewable Energy Guarantee of Origin. The windfarm is situated 8 kilometers off the coast of Llandudno and with 25 turbines, it is the second largest windfarm in Wales, with 90 MWh of installed capacity.

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Electric boilers for refining / electric digestion

Brazil

In Brazil, there is an installed 1 electric boiler for steam generation.

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Hydrogen/decarbonisation of calcination process

Brazil

Plans exist for piloting use of hydrogen for calcination. This project will reduce emissions by 400,000 tonnes by 2025, replacing coal-fired boilers.

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Wind

Norway

An onshore wind project located in the area between Høyanger and Sunnfjord. The renewable power will be used by existing industry and enable new industrial development in the region.

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Fuel switching

Conversion of first coal-fired boiler to natural gas as a transitional step in Australia, with an estimated abatement of up to 205,000 tonnes of CO2-e per year. There are plans for the conversion of a second coal-fired boiler to natural gas.

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Process efficiency

Australia

A product washing dilution reduction project to reduce energy demand related to evaporation in the Bayer process (which refines bauxite to produce alumina). This project is on track for completion in 2024 and has the potential to abate up to 80,000 tonnes of CO2-e per year once fully commissioned.

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Renewable Energy

Extending the supply of hydroelectric power beyond 2026 and continuing to investigate additional emissions reduction projects and technologies in South Africa.

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Renewable Electricity

In 2023, a prefeasibility study of pathways to decarbonise the electricity supply was carried out in Mozambique. Extending the supply of hydroelectric power beyond 2026 and continuing to investigate additional emissions reduction projects and technologies in Mozambique.

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Renewables

In 2021, there were investments in wind power as part of a strategy to diversify the energy mix. There are wind farms located in Brazil’s northeastern states of Pernambuco, Piauí and Ceará, with an aggregate installed capacity of 171.6 MW and a guaranteed average capacity of 74.4 MW.

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Energy efficiency

Brazil

1,040 smelting pots will be upgraded to switch the pot feeding process to an intermittent feed system that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an estimated 20%, as well as minimise the consumption of aluminium oxide and improve energy efficiency. The project will avoid 27 million cubic meters of water withdrawal and reduce power consumption by 17 MW, enough to supply power to 30,000 homes.

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Fuel switch

Brazil

In March 2020, a new boiler system was fueled by wood-chip biomass. The system replaced natural gas- and oil-fired boilers. Significantly lower scope 1 and 2 CO2e emissions compared to 2019 (from 0,55 to 0,20 tCO2e/t aluminum oxide).

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Energy Efficiency

India

An advance new ‘Pot Control System’to improve the current efficiency and operational performance . There is also Digital Twin pot for predicting thermal heath of pot.

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Energy Efficiency

India

Magnetic compensation technology developed and under implementation in India. It improved the MHD stability of the pots to enable energy saving by 150 kWh/t in full potline.

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Energy Efficiency

India

Reduction in energy consumption of aluminium smelter, by design improvement like low energy cell lining, energy efficient electrodes including patented Cu-insert collector bar (CuCB). The CuCB technology is under implementation in Hirakud, Mahan & Aditya smelters of Hindalco, which lowered the specific energy consumption by 250 kWh/ton of Al along with gain in current efficiency to aid extra metal production.

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Renewable Power

India

This is 375-400 MW of solar and wind Installed capacity with pumped hydro storage. This technology ensures 100 MW round-the-clock carbon-free power with a combination of solar, wind and hydro pump storage along with Grid connectivity upgrade from 220 KV to 400 KV for reliability. The project is under execution and expected to be operational from September'2024.

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Battery storage

Battery storage project with solar installation at a bauxite and coal mine for reduction in grid and diesel generator-based power. This is a step towards decarbonising mines operation.

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Biomass

India

This is a biomass based boiler and co-generation plant, meeting 30-40 % of the total steam and 25% of power requirment of the plant. The technology uses 100% agricultural waste.

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Renewable power

India

4 MW Hydro, 4 MW Solar and 5 MW Wind installations in India. With additioanal 10 MW Solar under execution and expected to be commissioned in March'2024.

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Renewable Power

India

On site operating Solar plants at various locations in India (30 MWp/24 MW AC ; Mahan - 35 MWp/25 MW AC ; Utkal Alumina - 7 MWp/5 MW AC) ; Mouda FRP - 7 MWp/4.5 MW AC ; Other 13.5 MWp/10 MW AC.

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Hydrogen

United Kingdom

This plant in the UK has been awarded £4.6 million to establish hydrogen burning trials as part of the UK Government's £55m Industrial Fuel Switching Competition, as part of the £1bn Net Zero Innovation Portfolio (NZIP), and the wider regional HyNet project.

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Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS)

Bahrain

Partnerships have been established to explore the feasibility of CCUS at smelters and address challenges including low concentration of off-gases.

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Increased post-consumer scrap recycling

Saudi Arabia

Build up of post-consumer scrap recycling infrastructure in regions with primarily primary production.

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Flexible Packaging Recycling

Germany

New technology is enabling recycling of the aluminium content in multi-layered cartons and flexible aluminium and plastic packaging. The process will generate hydrogen that can be used to produce clean energy on-site.

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Flexible packaging recycling

New technology is enabling recycling of the aluminium content in multi-layered cartons and flexible aluminium and plastic packaging. Aluminium-plastic separation is 100% efficient, allowing the two materials to be fully recycled. The process will generate hydrogen that can be used to produce clean energy on-site. The project will help increase recycling rates, supporting a circular economy.

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Closed loop recycling

Germany

Strengthening producer-consumer relationships has seen a rise in closed-loop recycling systems where manufacturing scrap can be collected and returned to the metal producer to be used again in the production process.

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Closed loop recycling

Japan

Strengthening producer-consumer relationships has seen a rise in closed-loop recycling systems where manufacturing scrap can be collected and returned to the metal producer to be used again in the production process.

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Recycling optimisation

Germany

Aluminium producers of cansheet and beverage cans in Europe are working towards a fully circular economy within 10 years. A roadmap is aiming for 100% aluminium beverage can recycling by 2030 through improved waste collection systems; better-sorting infrastructure; recovering aluminium from bottom ash treatment; and better consumer engagement.

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Scrap Quality Improvements

Norway

Two advanced sorting systems that improve aluminium recycling operations in Norway. This enables achievement of a high purity level (up to 99%) in aluminium scrap.

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Scrap Quality Improvements

Germany

Recycling is more efficient if scrap is sorted by alloy type. Companies have invested in advanced scrap sorting and shredding technologies that use X-ray transmission and sensors to better separate certain alloys.

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Solar steam plant

Saudi Arabia

The world's largest solar steam plant for alumina refining is being developed: a solar steam solution will provide most of the steam using solar based solution. This will reduce 600,000 tonnes of CO2 per year; almost 50% of the refinery’s current emissions.

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Electrification of refining

Ireland

Electrification of refining with renewable energy sources has been used to replace coal and gas as the primary fuel source. Companies are exploring and implementing electric solution for both digestion and calcination.

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Biomass

In March 2020, a new boiler system started operating at an alumina refinery in Brazil.  The natural gas and oil-fired boilers were replaced with a new boiler fueled by wood-chip biomass. The result is significantly lower scope 1 and 2 CO2e emissions compared to 2019 (from 0,55 to 0,20 tCO2/t aluminum oxide in 2021).

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Fuel switch

Brazil

1.1 billion Brazilian Real ($202.2 million) has been invested to switch an alumina refinery in Brazil to run on liquefied natural gas.

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Mechanical vapour recompression

Australia

As part of a trial in Western Australia, recycled steam will be used in the refining process to produce alumina. Through mechanical vapour recompression powered by renewable energy, waste steam that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere is redirected to a compressor that raises the pressure and temperature of the steam ready for reuse.

Find out more

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Hydrogen

Germany

Hydrogen could be used as a fuel source to produce high-temperature heat for industrial use. In Europe, opportunities to develop and operate hydrogen facilities to replace the natural gas used in cast houses and anode production are being explored. Meanwhile in Australia, the focus is on hydrogen as an alternative to natural gas in the calcination process at alumina refineries.

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Inert Anodes

Commercial-scale prototype cells of inert anode technology are being tested in smelters in Canada. Inert anodes have the potential to eliminate all direct process greenhouse gas emissions from smelting.

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Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS)

India

Partnerships have been established to explore the feasibility of CCUS at smelters and address challenges including low concentration of off-gases.

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Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS)

UAE

Partnerships have been established to explore the feasibility of CCUS at smelters and address challenges including low concentration of off-gases. 

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Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS)

France

Partnerships have been established to explore the feasibility of CCUS at smelters and address challenges including low concentration of off-gases.

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Hydrogen

Bahrain

Instalment of a combined cycle power plant with a hydrogen-ready J-series gas turbine technology with a completion date of 2024.

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Energy Efficiency Technology

Converted 18 per cent of pots to AP3XLE energy efficiency technology, and completed four of five EnPot trials in South Africa.

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Pot Room & Electricity technology update

In Brazil, 1,040 smelting pots will switch the smelter pot feeding process to an intermittent feed system that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an estimated 20%, as well as minimise consumption of aluminium oxide and improve energy efficiency.

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Solar

China

Investing in the construction of a 14.2-megawatt distributed rooftop photovoltaic project with an estimated annual power generation of approximately 14 million kilowatt-hours will gradually optimise the energy utilisation structure and reduce carbon emissions.

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Renewable Electricity (Solar)

Saudi Arabia

The use of solar power for aluminium production has been demonstrated, where electricity received from the grid is tracked and traced through the International Renewable Energy Certification System from an expanding solar project to the smelter.

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Renewable Electricity (Solar)

UAE

The use of solar power for aluminium production has been demonstrated, where electricity received from the grid is tracked and traced through the International Renewable Energy Certification System from an expanding solar project to the smelter.

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Hydropower

China

Over 4 million tonnes of smelting capacity will be relocated from coal-fired electricity-dependent regions to hydropower-rich provinces such as Yunnan. The change in power source for smelting could result in over 50 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions savings.

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Renewable Electricity (Wind)

Spain

Long-term contracts for renewable energy are being increasingly adopted to secure wind power supply to smelters. Such agreements enable further investment in wind turbines and growth in overall wind farm capacity.

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Renewable Electricity (Wind)

Long-term contracts for renewable energy are being increasingly adopted to secure wind power supply to smelters. Such agreements enable further investment in wind turbines and growth in overall wind farm capacity.

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Virtual battery

Germany

Increasing variable renewable energy in grid systems means aluminium smelters must find a way to deal with intermittent supply and operate flexibly. The addition of heat exchangers and ducting systems means smelters can act as virtual batteries responding to changes in electricity supply and demand as needed, as demonstrated in Germany.

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Locations3Recycling aluminium scrap into building components2Energy Efficiency2Inert Anodes3Scrap Sorting3Pre/post-consumer Scrap recycling3Recycling of External Aluminium Scrap3Post-consumer scrap purification3Recycling joint venture3Post Consumer Scrap3Post Consumer Scrap3Post-consumer scrap purification3Dross Recycling3Scrap sorting3Closed-loop recycling3Alloy sorting and recycling optimisation3Closed loop recycling2Electrification of cast house and recycling furnace1Solar Power for Smelter1CCUS1Solar/battery1Solar/battery2Mechanical Vapour Recompression2Electric calcination1Solar Power for Smelter2Hydrogen use for calcination (Refining)2Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) at Smelters2Electrification of cast house and recycling furnace2Hydrogen2Inert anode cells2Heat recovery2FHEST Technology2Carbon Anode Antioxidant Additives2Graphitised Cathode Electrolysers1Solar Power for Smelter – ACWA power2Solar thermal plant for refining1Solar2Mechanical Vapour Recompression2Electric calcination2Hydrogen1GE’s Advanced Gas Path1Renewable Energy3Plasma technology2Bio anodes2Carbon free electrolysis2CCS1Solar1Solar1Solar1Solar and battery2Biomethane and anode production.1Wind2Electric boilers for refining / electric digestion2Hydrogen/decarbonisation of calcination process1Wind2Fuel switching1Process efficiency2Renewable Energy1Renewable Electricity1Renewables1Energy efficiency2Fuel switch1Energy Efficiency1Energy Efficiency1Energy Efficiency1Renewable Power1Battery storage2Biomass1Renewable power1Renewable Power2Hydrogen1Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS)3Increased post-consumer scrap recycling3Flexible Packaging Recycling3Flexible packaging recycling3Closed loop recycling3Closed loop recycling2Recycling optimisation3Scrap Quality Improvements3Scrap Quality Improvements2Solar steam plant2Electrification of refining2Biomass2Fuel switch2Mechanical vapour recompression2Hydrogen2Inert Anodes1Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS)1Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS)1Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS)1Hydrogen2Energy Efficiency Technology1Pot Room & Electricity technology update1Solar1Renewable Electricity (Solar)1Renewable Electricity (Solar)1Hydropower1Renewable Electricity (Wind)1Renewable Electricity (Wind)1Virtual battery

GHG Emissions in the global aluminium industry

In all regions, aluminium producers are investing in innovative solutions that reduce their environmental impact aligned with the industry’s three GHG emissions pathways, aiming to support global climate goals by 2050. This paper (version 2) shows a growth of projects from 16 identified projects in 2021, to 50 in 2022.

PATHWAY 1 Electricity decarbonisation

More than 60% of the aluminium sector’s 1.1 billion tonnes of CO2e emissions (2018) are from the production of electricity consumed during the smelting process. Decarbonised power generation and the deployment of carbon capture utilisation and storage (CCUS) offer the most significant opportunity to reduce emissions to near zero by 2050.

PATHWAY 2 Direct emissions reduction

Electrification, fuel switching to green hydrogen and CCUS offer the most credible approach to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, while new technologies, such as inert anodes, can lower process emissions.

PATHWAY 3 Recycling and resource efficiency

Increasing collection rates, along with other resource efficiency actions, would reduce the need for primary aluminium by 20%, which in turn could cut the sector’s annual emissions by around 300 million tonnes of CO2e.

GHG Emissions in the global aluminium industry

In all regions, aluminium producers are investing in innovative solutions that reduce their environmental impact aligned with the industry’s three GHG emissions pathways, aiming to support global climate goals by 2050. This paper (version 2) shows a growth of projects from 16 identified projects in 2021, to 50 in 2022.

PATHWAY 1 Electricity decarbonisation

More than 60% of the aluminium sector’s 1.1 billion tonnes of CO2e emissions (2018) are from the production of electricity consumed during the smelting process. Decarbonised power generation and the deployment of carbon capture utilisation and storage (CCUS) offer the most significant opportunity to reduce emissions to near zero by 2050.

PATHWAY 2 Direct emissions reduction

Electrification, fuel switching to green hydrogen and CCUS offer the most credible approach to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, while new technologies, such as inert anodes, can lower process emissions.

PATHWAY 3 Recycling and resource efficiency

Increasing collection rates, along with other resource efficiency actions, would reduce the need for primary aluminium by 20%, which in turn could cut the sector’s annual emissions by around 300 million tonnes of CO2e.

GHG Emissions in the global aluminium industry

In all regions, aluminium producers are investing in innovative solutions that reduce their environmental impact aligned with the industry’s three GHG emissions pathways, aiming to support global climate goals by 2050. This paper (version 2) shows a growth of projects from 16 identified projects in 2021, to 50 in 2022.

PATHWAY 1 Electricity decarbonisation

More than 60% of the aluminium sector’s 1.1 billion tonnes of CO2e emissions (2018) are from the production of electricity consumed during the smelting process. Decarbonised power generation and the deployment of carbon capture utilisation and storage (CCUS) offer the most significant opportunity to reduce emissions to near zero by 2050.

PATHWAY 2 Direct emissions reduction

Electrification, fuel switching to green hydrogen and CCUS offer the most credible approach to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, while new technologies, such as inert anodes, can lower process emissions.

PATHWAY 3 Recycling and resource efficiency

Increasing collection rates, along with other resource efficiency actions, would reduce the need for primary aluminium by 20%, which in turn could cut the sector’s annual emissions by around 300 million tonnes of CO2e.

GHG Emissions in the global aluminium industry

In all regions, aluminium producers are investing in innovative solutions that reduce their environmental impact aligned with the industry’s three GHG emissions pathways, aiming to support global climate goals by 2050. This paper (version 2) shows a growth of projects from 16 identified projects in 2021, to 50 in 2022.

PATHWAY 1 Electricity decarbonisation

More than 60% of the aluminium sector’s 1.1 billion tonnes of CO2e emissions (2018) are from the production of electricity consumed during the smelting process. Decarbonised power generation and the deployment of carbon capture utilisation and storage (CCUS) offer the most significant opportunity to reduce emissions to near zero by 2050.

PATHWAY 2 Direct emissions reduction

Electrification, fuel switching to green hydrogen and CCUS offer the most credible approach to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, while new technologies, such as inert anodes, can lower process emissions.

PATHWAY 3 Recycling and resource efficiency

Increasing collection rates, along with other resource efficiency actions, would reduce the need for primary aluminium by 20%, which in turn could cut the sector’s annual emissions by around 300 million tonnes of CO2e.

GHG Emissions in the global aluminium industry

In all regions, aluminium producers are investing in innovative solutions that reduce their environmental impact aligned with the industry’s three GHG emissions pathways, aiming to support global climate goals by 2050. This paper (version 2) shows a growth of projects from 16 identified projects in 2021, to 50 in 2022.

PATHWAY 1 Electricity decarbonisation

More than 60% of the aluminium sector’s 1.1 billion tonnes of CO2e emissions (2018) are from the production of electricity consumed during the smelting process. Decarbonised power generation and the deployment of carbon capture utilisation and storage (CCUS) offer the most significant opportunity to reduce emissions to near zero by 2050.

PATHWAY 2 Direct emissions reduction

Electrification, fuel switching to green hydrogen and CCUS offer the most credible approach to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, while new technologies, such as inert anodes, can lower process emissions.

PATHWAY 3 Recycling and resource efficiency

Increasing collection rates, along with other resource efficiency actions, would reduce the need for primary aluminium by 20%, which in turn could cut the sector’s annual emissions by around 300 million tonnes of CO2e.

GHG Emissions in the global aluminium industry

In all regions, aluminium producers are investing in innovative solutions that reduce their environmental impact aligned with the industry’s three GHG emissions pathways, aiming to support global climate goals by 2050. This paper (version 2) shows a growth of projects from 16 identified projects in 2021, to 50 in 2022.

PATHWAY 1 Electricity decarbonisation

More than 60% of the aluminium sector’s 1.1 billion tonnes of CO2e emissions (2018) are from the production of electricity consumed during the smelting process. Decarbonised power generation and the deployment of carbon capture utilisation and storage (CCUS) offer the most significant opportunity to reduce emissions to near zero by 2050.

PATHWAY 2 Direct emissions reduction

Electrification, fuel switching to green hydrogen and CCUS offer the most credible approach to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, while new technologies, such as inert anodes, can lower process emissions.

PATHWAY 3 Recycling and resource efficiency

Increasing collection rates, along with other resource efficiency actions, would reduce the need for primary aluminium by 20%, which in turn could cut the sector’s annual emissions by around 300 million tonnes of CO2e.